Ejercicio excéntrico como recurso físico preventivo en personas mayores de 65 años: revisión sistemática de la literatura científica
Eccentric exercise as preventive physical option in people over 65 years: a systematic review of the scientific literature
a Departamento de Enfermería Comunitaria, Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública e Historia de la Ciencia, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, España
b Departamento de Salud Pública, Historia de la Ciencia y Ginecología, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Elche, España
c Departamento de Farmacia, Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera, Elche, España
d Unidad de Hospitalización a Domicilio, Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Alicante, España
Palabras ClaveEjercicio excéntrico. Promoción de la salud. Ancianos. Sarcopenia.
KeywordsEccentric exercise. Health promotion. Elderly. Sarcopenia.
To review the scientific literature to determine t the benefits eccentric exercise for people over 65, and how to apply this.Method
A systematic documental study was made of randomized clinical trials published in journals indexed in international databases, excluding those that were not based on the target population (over 65 years) and/or used drugs in the intervention.Results
A total of 10 articles were selected for review from the following countries of origin: Switzerland, United States, Canada and United Kingdom. Some were based on a healthy population, with others on cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and Parkinson's disease and hemiparesis. Eccentric exercise was performed using, cyclo-ergometer, knee exercise with dynamometer, treadmill, and exercises with machines.Conclusions
Eccentric training is an option to reduce and prevent sarcopenia. Due to its low metabolic cost and reduced oxygen consumption it is optimal in cardiovascular disorders, chronic illness and frailty. It decreases risk of falling, and improves mobility and quality of life. The bicycle and treadmill movements, aimed at specific segments, with or without load, and downhill walking are low cost resources that can be used. More research studies are required on this theme, with increased population sizes, as well as studies including interventions for upper body segments.